Acque Reflue Civili EN

Civil Wastewater

Wastewater treatment serving the community

Protection of public health and the environment is not the only purpose of civil (or municipal) wastewater treatment: in fact, the issue of reuse of the blue resource is increasingly felt by communities. Large public sewage treatment plants usually consist of primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes: MITA can support technical offices and contractors in all these stages.

Civil wastewater: what it is and how it can be managed

Organic and chemical substances, oils and greases, suspended solids in different amounts-all these agents contribute to the pollution of “civil wastewater” , or “municipal water,” by which we denote the wastewater produced by all domestic activities of human beings. The sources of this pollution can thus be residential homes, offices, stores and other urban settlements.

The main purpose of civil wastewater treatment is, of course, to protect public health and the environment, but it is not the only one: in recent years, as a result of major climate changes and increasingly complex resource management, the reuse of treated water for civil, industrial, and irrigation purposes is becoming increasingly popular.

Civil wastewater is categorized as opposed to industrial wastewater mainly because of its different management: while the latter differs considerably from plant to plant in terms of the quality and quantity of the effluent, the former is treated in civil wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through a very specific series of steps, regulated by local laws. The aim is to remove all the types of pollutants that can arrive from an entire community, whose effluent production is measured in population equivalents: there are sewage treatment plants of tens or hundreds of population equivalents, whose water is invariably treated through primary (roughing), secondary (biological) and tertiary (finishing), disinfection (by potabilization) treatments.

Acque Reflue Civili EN

Water treatment plants at a glance

Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments, pretreatment and disinfection: these are terms, corresponding to as many stages of depollution, that are always encountered when we talk about water purification plants in the civil sector.

We can summarize them as follows.

  • Primary treatments (or mechanical pre-treatments): wastewater goes through a stage of removing the coarser parts. Screening, desanding, degreasing and primary sedimentation are the most common processes.
  • Secondary or biological treatments: aerobic or anaerobic processes useful to degrade organic matter, through bacteria, into simpler and more harmless substances. Biological oxidation, activated sludge treatments and phytodepuration are illustrative of this stage.
  • Tertiary treatments: the stage of refinement in the removal of suspended solids, phosphorus and nitrogen. It can be achieved by sand, cloth or pressure filtration, adsorption or ozonation.
    Disinfection: the purified water is disinfected to remove bacteria and pathogens by chlorination and UV light.

MITA solutions for civil wastewater

Engineering firms, consultants, and contractors can seek support from MITA Water Technologies in the three main stages of civil wastewater treatments.

  • For primary treatments: clarifiers and laminar pack de-oilers, flotation systems for separation of solids and liquids.
  • For secondary treatments: rotating biological contactors (biodiscs) for oxidation with aerobic bacteria.
  • For tertiary treatments: sand filters, free-fiber cloth filters (depth filtration), compact biocombi plants for small communities (biological treatments plus filtration).

We are also aware of how much our stakeholders need ongoing, pre- and post-installation support, so we offer services for the entire product life cycle. These include bench and field pilot testing, system upgrading and expansion, maintenance and spare parts.

Benefits of MITA solutions

  • Integration of heterogeneous solutions, for different phases and quality of civil wastewater.
  • Technologies with very low life cycle cost (acquisition, operation, maintenance).
  • Simple operation, reduced water and energy use.
  • Low need for ancillary works.
Ask for Information

Case studies with civil wastewater

Tools to help you choose


Industrial and civil wastewater treatment technologies

Simplicity, reliability ... and the lowest product life cycle cost: water treatment solutions from MITA Water Technologies.

Our support throughout the product life cycle

We offer a series of additional support services for our customers: the MITA Lifecycle Services.
Idea icon

A sustainable and efficient solution for every industry and need

Wastewater treatment will increasingly be a resource efficiency and optimization opportunity for organizations in both civil and industrial settings.